Vocabulary

  • Actor - An actor is a person who plays a part on the stage or in a film.       

    Aeroplane - (American airplane) An aeroplane is a flying machine driven by one or more engines.

    Aerodrome (also called airport) -An aerodrome is a large tract of land with its buildings, open space etc. where aircrafts take off, land and are kept.

    Adolescence- Adolescence is the growing age of human beings - the period which extends from childhood to manhood or womanhood.

    Adulterated - A thing is adulterated if it is corrupted by admix­ture of a base ingredient.

    Acrobat - An acrobat is an agile person who can do spectacular things like rope dancing, swinging on a trapeze etc. as in a circus.

    Amateur-An amateur is a person who has a taste for anything like sports, singing, acting, photography, painting etc. and cul­tivates it as a pastime, without any idea of remuneration.

    Alarm Clock - An alarm clock is an instrument (clock) that measures time and rings a bell at any fixed time to wake up the sleepers.

    Air-Conditioner- An air-conditioner is an apparatus (machine),that keeps a room or building or a coach at a certain temperature and degree of humidity.

    Album - An album is a book with blank pages in which photographs, autographs, stamps etc. are kept.

    Atlas - An atlas is a collection of maps bound in the shape of a book.

    Athlete - An athlete is a physically strong person who is good at and competes in various physical exercises like swimming, running, jumping, boxes etc.

    Artist - An artist is a person who practises any of the fine arts such as painting, sculpture etc.

    Artiste - An artiste is a person who practises a performing art like acting, singing, dancing etc.

    [Note the difference between the spellings of the two words­ artist and artiste]

    Artisan - An artisan is a skilled workman in industry or trade. [Note the difference between artist and artisan]

    Ambassador - An ambassador is a diplomat of the highest rank who represents the government of his country in a foreign country. (An 'embassy' is an ambassador's office).

    Aquarium - An aquarium is au artificial tank or pond for keeping and showing living fish and water-plants. ('aqua' means water)

    Awl-An awl is a pointed tool for making small holes in leather etc.

    Autobiography-An autobiography is the story of a person's life written by himself or herself.

    ['auto' means 'self'. This 'auto' is found ill a large number of English words.

    autograph - writing of one's own name.

    automatic - self-acting; self-propelled.

    autocrat - absolute ruler; despot.

    autonomy - self-government; independent in government.

    automobile - a motor-driven vehicle such as a motor car:

     Astronaut (Aeronaut) - An astronaut is a traveller through outer space.

    (This word is based on a Greek word 'astron' which means 'star'. Many English words are based on this 'astron'.

     Astronomy is the science which studies stars, planets; the sun, the moon and all the heavenly bodies in the sky.

    Astrology is Ii subject which claims that it can foretell one's future by a study of the stars on one's life.

    (Believers in astrology think that human destiny is influenced by the stars.)     

     Asterisk is a star-shaped symbol (*) which is generally used in writing or printing to tell the reader to look at the bottom of the page for a foot-note.

     Audience - An audience is a gathering of persons for the purpose of hearing a speaker or singer etc. or seeing a performance on the stage.

     Auditorium - An auditorium is a hall for lectures, concerts, stage shows etc.

    (The two words given above are based on 'audio' which concerns sound.

    Audio-visual-which gives us both Sound and pictures).

     Accountant-An accountant is a person whose professional work is to keep business accounts.

     Apprentice - An apprentice is a person who is learning a skilled trade.

     Attic - An attic is a room just under the roof a house generally used for storing things.

     Aviary - An aviary is a place where birds are kept.

           (Another similar word Aviation means the practice or science of flying aircraft).

     Architect - An architect is a person who designs buildings and sees that they are properly constructed.

    ('Arch' means curved structure in building. By extension the word here includes all types of buildings).

    Archaeology is the study of ancient remains.

           (Greek word 'archaeo' means ancient, primitive)

    Author - An author is a person who writes a book, a play, a novel, essays, discourses, etc.

    Ambulance - An ambulance is a vehicle for carrying sick or injured people to hospital.

    Appendix is something added, especially at the end of a book.

    Antiseptic - An antiseptic is a medicine which destroys germs.

    ('anti' means against. There are many English words containing this 'anti': anti-corruption - against corruption.

    anti-biotics - medicine used for killing harmful germs, bacteria etc. antipathy - opposite of sympathy)

    Axle - An axle is a rod on which a wheel revolves.

    Atheist - An atheist is a person who does not believe in the

    existence of God.

    (' a' is a Greek prefix meaning 'not', 'against', 'without'. 'Theist' is based on a Greek word 'theos'meaning God). .

    Other words based on 'theos':

    monotheism - belief in one God.

    pan theism - belief in many gods and goddesses as in ancient Greece, Rome and India.

    theology - study of God and religion.

    Altimeter is an instrument for measuring height above sea level.

    Amphi theatre is a semi-circular rising gallery in a theatre or a place of public contest with, seats rising behind and above each other around an open space.                  

    Barometer - A barometer is an instrument for measuring atmos­pheric pressure, forecasting weather etc.

    ['meter' means something that measures; other words: thermometer - measurer of heat (temperature).

    taxi meter - measurer of taxi miles].

    Balcony - A balcony is an outside structure projecting from the wall of a house.

    Bad Debt - A bad debt is a debt unlikely to be paid.

    Ball- A ball is a social gathering for dancing and entertainment. [Note: The word 'ball' in English has many meanings. The meaning given above is only one of those meanings. One should select the meaning of a word from a dictionary according to the context.]

    Ball Pen - A ball pen is a pen with a replaceable tube of ink which flows to the ball point while writing but stops flowing when not in use.

    Ballot Paper - A ballot paper is a piece of paper used in secret voting.

    Black-board - A blackboard is a board generally of black colour used in teaching institutions for writing and drawing with chalk. Basement is the lowest part of a building, wholly or partly below ground level.

    Breakfast is the first and light meal of the day.

    (It is funny to say that during night we didn't eat anything and so we were on, fast. In the morning we break that fast.)

    Bakery - A bakery is a place where bread, biscuits, cakes etc. are baked and sold.

    Botany is the scientific study of plants.

    (based on Greek word 'botane' which means plant)

    Ballet is a dance-drama in which a story is presented without speech or singing.

    Banquet - A banquet is a dinner party arranged on a special occasion esp. in honour of some important person.

    Bellows is a tool for blowing air into fire.

    Biography is the story of a person's life.

    Binoculars are field glasses or telescope for two eyes.

    Bicycle - A bicycle is a vehicle with two wheels, propelled by using pedals to ride on.

    (Note: The two words given above have the prefix 'bi', which means two. bisect - to cut in halves.)

    Booking Office - A booking office is an office for the sale of tickets for travelling or for different kinds of shows etc. Beautician - A beautician is a person, who is trained to make women and now even men to look beautiful and attractive.

      Bookworm - A bookworm is a person who is extremely fond of reading books to the -extent of neglecting other diversions of life. (diversion - something which diverts our mind; amusement; hobby.)

    Biology is the scientific study of living things, both plants and animals.

    (based on two Greek words, 'bio', life and 'ology', science or stul1Y of. 'ology; itself is based on a Greek word 'logos' meaning 'the study of. Some other words containing 'bio' - biography, autobiography, biogas, biomass etc.)

    Brief Case - A brief ,ease is a leather or plastic handbag for keeping documents, papers etc.

    Breeze -A breeze is a soft, gentle breeze.

    Blood Bank - A blood bank is a place where blood or blood plasma is stored for use in hospitals etc.

    Bulldozer - A bulldozer is a powerful motor vehicle that moves earth, trees, rocks etc. to level ground.

    Bulletin -A bulletin is an official report.

    Bureaucracy is a government run by the officials (and not by the representatives of the people).

    [Note: Many English words contain 'cracy', rule: autocracy - auto + cracy - rule by one person

    democracy - rule by the representatives of the people (demo, people + cracy, rule)

    aristocracy - rule by the aristocrats (people high by birth, rank and/or wealth)

    Bonus is an extra payment to workers.

    Broker-A broker is a person who act" as a middle man in buying and selling.

    Bully - A bully is a person who misuses his strength to frighten       or hurt the weak.

    Budget-A budget is an estimate of probable income and expen­diture.

    A Bankrupt is a person who is judged by a law-court to be unable to pay his debts in full and whose property; therefore, is sold for the benefit of all his creditors.               

    Burglar-A burglar is a person who breaks into a house (at night      for stealing.)

    Camera is an apparatus with lenses for taking photographs.

    Catalogue is a list of names, books, places, goods etc. such an order that they can be found easily.

    Canteen - A canteen is a place where we can buy refreshments.

    Cafe -A cafe is a small restaurant where meals may be bought.

    Calendar is the table showing the division of a particular year into days, weeks, mouths etc.

    Caravan is a group of persons, particularly of traders, making a journey together for the sake of safety, usually across a desert.

    Cabin - A cabin is a small room in a ship or a hut.             

    Cabinet- A cabinet is a committee of government ministers.

    (It is also a piece of furniture with shelves or drawers to keep things).

    Capital is the city which is the. seat of the government of a country or any of its states.

    Capital Punishment is the death sentence given to a culprit. Cardigan -A cardigan is a knitted woolen jacket or sweater. Cannery - A cannery is a factory where food is processed and canned.

    Census is the official counting of a country's whole population: Ceiling Fan - A ceiling. fan is a fan attached to the ceiling of a room.

    Certificate: A certificate is a written statement made by a concerned person in authority attesting certain facts.

    Cellar - A cellar is an underground room for storing wine and. other provisions.

    Chemist - A chemist is a person who prepares and sells medi­cines and related items.

    Chair - A chair is an item of furniture for sitting, supported by four legs and having a back made of wood, iron or plastic.

    Cheque : A cheque is a written note to a .bank to pay a fixed amount of money.

    Coach - A coach is a person who gives special training in games and athletics.

    (This word also means a carriage, a railway carriage.)

    Cancer is a diseased growth of cells in the body, usually causing death.

    Calculator: A calculator is a device (apparatus) which gives arithmetical calculations.

    Computer - A computer is a calculating machine which stores information and analyses it.

    Cosmonaut (Astronaut) - A cosmonaut is a traveller through outer space.

    (The word 'cosmos' means 'universe')

    Clock - A clock is an instrument (machine, apparatus, device) for measuring and showing time.

     Cinema is a theatre where films are shown.

    Conference is a meeting where discussions and exchange of views are held.

    Concert is a musical entertainment, especially one arranged in a public hall on a large scale.

    Cobb is a hooded poisonous snake.

    Consensus is a general agreement of opinion.

    Constitution is a body of fundamental principles (basic rules) according to which a state is run.

    Constituency is the area or the people represented by a member of Parliament or a State Assembly.

    Communalism is thinking and working for the interest of one's own religious community at the cost of other communities.

    Cosmetics are preparations for improving women's (and now

    even men's) appearance by the use of face-cream, face powder, hair- shampoo, lip-stick etc.

    Co-operation is working together for a common-end.

    Cosmopolitan City - A cosmopolitan city is a very big city

    where people of various nationalities are found such as Delhi, Bombay etc.

    ('Cosmos' means 'universe').

    Calorie is a unit of energy supplied by food.

    Canopy - A canopy is a covering spread over a throne, a bed or an altar (in a religious place).

    Cardiologist - A cardiologist is a doctor who specialises in the diseases of the heart.

    (based on Greek root ~card' meaning heart;

    Cardiogram - electrically produced record of the beating of the heart.

    Cardiograph is an instrument used for this purpose.)

    Common wealth is a group of sovereign (fully independent) states

        (countries) associating politically for their mutual good.

    Civilization is the state of being developed socially, technically,

        educationally, philosophically, politically etc.